Wireless Network provides a significant impact to the world right from its deployment. Wireless communication network is developing at a much faster rate [1]. Mobile phones are considered to be an important part of wireless network system. People all round the globe makes use of mobile phones for communication and exchange of information. Some popular kind of wireless communication technology are GSM, UMTS and WLAN. WPAN can be distinguished from WLAN because of their smaller area of coverage [17]. They can be also distinguished by the help of AD-HOC topology.

                In the coming pages of the report an idea has been provided regarding various wireless communication technology. A comparison has been provided between various communication technologies with respect to four parameter that is communication spectrum, technique of modulation, mechanism of medium access control technique and lastly network topology. After that an evaluation has been provided on various wireless technologies like UHF RFID, NFC, Zig-Bee, Z-wave, Bluetooth and Bluetooth low energy, cellular system, IEEE 802.11P and low power wide area network. In the end a proper standard has been identified from the list which can provide best kind of network performance.

                UFH RFID works at a frequency band of 858 to 930 MHz. The frequency range of UFH RFID are not considered globally so this particular frequency cannot be used internationally. On the Contrary NFC makes use of inductive coupling at a frequency range of 13.56 MHz. Zigbee works at a band of 2.4 GHz while Z-wave makes use of two frequency band that is 868.42 in Europe and 908.42 MH in USA [4]. Bluetooth operates at a frequency spectrum of 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz. Cellular frequency operates at a frequency spectrum between 700 MHz to 2.6 GHz. IEEE 802.11P operates at a frequency band of 5.8 to 5.95 Ghz. Low-Power Wide Area Networks operates at a frequency of 868 MHz to 902 MHz. 


Low power wide area network makes use of narrow band modulation technique. While UFH RFID makes use of piggyback modulation technique. NFC makes use of ASK modulation technique. Binary Phase shifting modulation technique is used in ZigBee for the frequency range of 868 to 915 MHz. While in Z-Wave the modulation technique is GFSK Manchester channel encoding [7]. Bluetooth makes adaptive frequency hopping technique while Bluetooth low energy makes use of Gaussian frequency shift keying modulation technique. Cellular system makes use of QDPSK modulation technique. IEEE 802.11P makes use of error detection modulation technique.



UHF RFID makes use of anti-collision protocol and selects frame slotted ALOHA. While NFC makes operates in normal respond in which a master named initiator is allowed for sending data to target [4]. In ZigBee the MAC layer focus on lower data rate wireless connectivity which is considered to be fixed and portable. The MAC layer of Z-Wave is used for basic kind of usage of various wireless hardware. This function is considered to invisible to end users. The MAC layer of Bluetooth consists of three parts namely link manager protocol, logical link protocol and lastly adaptation protocol [9]. The MAC layer of IEEE 802.11P makes use of channel switching mechanism for efficient operation of seven DSRC channels. 

Low power wide area networks have suitable network topology which has a frame size of ten bytes which is transmitted few times per day at ultra-low speed. NFC network topology consist of two communication terminal that is initiator and target. ZigBee only supports only star, tree and mesh kind of network topologies while on the contrary IEEE. 802.15 comes up with star, cluster tree and mesh topology.

                RFID technology is mainly used for various kinds of application like tracking of asset and tool tracking. RFID can be considered to be wireless use of electromagnetic fields which can be used for transferring of data. There are mainly three type of RFID that is LF (low frequency), HF (High frequency) and lastly UHF (Ultra High frequency). UHF RFID comes up with a frequency range of 433-960 MHz. It is used in major type of application. This particular type of RFID is considered to be tag dependent.

                NFC stands for Near Field Communication and it mainly focus on providing short kind of range between various compatible devices [2]. NFC generally requires one transmitting and another receiving signal. A wide range of devices can be used for NFC standard. It can be considered to be either passive or active nature. Passive NFC devices are inclusive of tags and other small transmitter without the of power source.


Fig 1: NFC

(Source: [4])

                Zigbee makes use of mesh system where information can easily jump from one device to another by making use of wireless signal. When a particular device drops out alternate routes are considered to be remaining which allow the whole system to be active [11]. There are some advantages of using Zigbee like it comes up with easy setup, one can easily control and monitor product by making use of remote or any kind of mobile device. It supports large number of devices on a single setup. On the contrary it has some disadvantage like it is not secure like other kinds of system like Wi-Fi.

                Z-Wave generally consist of mesh network which makes use of low energy radio waves for various kinds of communication. It generally connects a large number of device like automated lighting, gadget tool and other kind of smart devices [13]. There are large number of benefits of using Z-wave like dependable and secure communication, comes up with easy installation, low consumption of power. Along with benefits it has some drawbacks like it only supports 232 nodes, it is slow so it can only support transmission of data up to 100 kbps only.

                Bluetooth is considered to be wireless kind of technology which is present in almost all mobile devices. It is used for wide variety of function like transferring of text file, videos and images between mobile phone and other kind of electronic devices [15]. It generally works in 2.4 GHz band and creates PAN for various kind of communication. Various machine to machine and internet of things (IOT) makes use of Bluetooth in various wireless handsets, transfer of file between various kinds of devices, wireless music speakers.


Fig 2: Bluetooth 

(Source: [14])

                4.0 version of Bluetooth is also known as Bluetooth low energy or BLE. It is sometimes referred by some other kind of name like Bluetooth smart or Wibree [16]. It comes up low variation of original standard of Bluetooth. This technology is also maintained by Bluetooth SIG. BLE devices can be operated by the help of coin for large number of years as it low power consumption and low kind of sleeping nodes. It also works in the same band but makes use of different FHSS scheme.

                Cellular system makes use of Space Division multiplexing technique (SDM). It is a technology for communication in which various kinds of small exchange named cells are equipped with low power radio antennas. It is mainly interconnected through the help of central exchange [10]. With the moving of cell phone from a place to next radio frequency is generally handed from one cell to another with making any kind of interruption in the call.

                Cellular system has some advantages like higher capacity, low transmission of power, robustness and has local interference only. Small cell result in more number of users. Larger cells require a much power for transmission in comparison to small cells [2]. For huge number of cells there are large number of signal for interfering. On the contrary for smaller cells there are only limited number of interference.



Fig 3: Cellular System

(Source: [7])

                Cellular system has disadvantage like it requires infrastructure, handover is required and lastly a proper planning is required for frequency. Small cells need proper kind of infrastructure for establishing connection with various base station [12]. The infrastructure is generally inclusive of various kinds of switches for forwarding of call, understanding location of register. Mobile base station need to handover from one cell to another. For avoiding interference, frequency spectrum needs to be distributed with small range of spectrum of frequency.

                IEEE 802.11P equipment can be easily used in environment where various kind of physical properties are changing. It is required at the time of short duration of exchange of communication. The main aim of this particular standard is to provide minimum kind of standard for ensuring interoperability among various kinds of wireless devices [14]. IEEE 802.11P is considered to be a well-known standard in vehicular Environment (WAVE). IEEE 802.11 is known to be collection of various things like physical layer, media access control for use of WLAN in various kinds of bands like 5 and 60 GHz. IEEE 802.11P is considered to be one of latest amendments of IEEE 802.11.   

                Low power wide area networks are drawing lot of attention because of its affordable connectivity and low distributed power over the devices. It focuses on creation short range wireless technologies and diverting requirements to large number of IoT application [17]. LWPA technologies generally needs unique set of features like wide area connectivity for low power and low data rate services. LPWA are considered to be unique in nature because of tradeoff and traditional technologies in IOT. The main reason behind the success of LPWA technologies is its ability to offer low power connectivity to large number of user devices.

                Depending on the evaluation of wireless communication standard for cyber security and internet of things I can say that cellular system is the best. Cellular system is best because it can provide a lot of benefits like voice and data service during roaming [11]. Due to its wireless feature it can be easily used in areas where cables cannot be laid out very easily. It is very easy to upgrade various kinds of cellular network. Mobile and subscribes are connected instantly with the various cellular network as soon as the cell phone is switched on.

                From the above discussion it can be easily concluded that this report is all about wireless communication network. In the discussion portion of the report a comparison has been provided in terms of four check list that is spectrum of communication, mechanism of MAC, technique of modulation and lastly network topology. After that various kinds of wireless communication standard that is UHF RFID, IEEE 802.11P, Bluetooth, Cellular network system, LPWA (Low power wide area network), ZigBee has been discussed in details. In the end of the discussion portion of the report a proper wireless communication standard has been selected which can provide the best kind of network performance.  


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