A system network can be defined as a telecommunication network that helps in exchange of data. System network engineering is domain which helps in studying and analyzing the whole communication process. It is mainly seen in between different system which is linked to network for exchanging information (Rawat & Reddy, 2016). At present, there is various kind of data exchange which form small groups. It merely focuses on data types that can be easily exchanged in between the system networks. In this week, I have learned about Wireshark and virtualization tools. Wireshark can be stated as the protocol analyzer which is required for capturing the binary data that comprises network traffic. It merely focuses on analysis and data display which help in understanding it. Wireshark tool is used in whole networking industry which is important for most of the network engineers. I have learned about four kinds of number system which is being used in networking like binary, decimal, hexadecimal, and Octal. Number system is nothing but a different method of representing the same given quantity (Liu et al., 2016). Decimal number system is mainly used for representing different quantities. Each of the information stored in system is both stored and transmitted using binary information. In octal number system, three binary bits are represented by making use of single octal digit number. In addition, I have learned about windows calculator which is used for converting a number of one system to another.
This particular week is all about networking and security that deals with packet-switching and different networking models. In case of circuit switching, a dedicated channel is required for sending data. The most suitable example of circuit switching network is the plain old telephone system (Fu et al., 2018). As soon as the circuit has been created, the person at the other end of the telephone has an effectively come up will have a wired connection for both the telephones. In the year 1960, the whole idea of switching of small blocks of data was seen. It was seen in two major countries of the world that is UK and USA. BBN technologies were the first organization to build the network. IMP is considered to be as the first implemented device which can carry out all the duties of present router. Network infrastructure of Internet has been designed in such a way that it can handle small packets of data which are 1500 bytes in length. The mere concept of packet switching is all about separation and summation of different packets. Any kind of damage packet on the congested network on the packet can easily result in lost and delivered out of sequence (Tourani et al., 2017). Packet-switched network is required for dealing with this kind of events. Ethernet hubs are mainly required for connecting large number of devices which helps in facilitating data exchanges. Network switches are nothing smart devices which help in learning about the devices to which it is connected. Routers are nothing but networking devices which help one network to easily communicate with another network. In addition, I have learned about internet model which provides a framework that is required for hosting works from the perspective of TCP/IP. At present, there is mainly two models of networking protocol that is TCP and IP.
In week 3, I have learned about the application layer which deals with user application. This merely provides an ability for interacting with number of services and devices on internet and local network. The application provides the ability to make use of different networks. In case of client or server network, a server mainly responds to those kinds of request. In case of client and server networking, there is some kind of restricting in between the two that is client and server (Hajli & Lin, 2016). In case of peer-to-peer networking each of the given system in network works like server and client. All the machine aims to share the same kind of resource and it can be easily accessed by any other resource. Considering peer to peer network, it does not require any kind of dedicated server. It is due to the fact server role can be easily shared among most of the peers. Home networks aim to share file or printers to another system on the network. Peer to Peer can easily work in some small network that is home network and in small firm. In case of large networks, administration cannot be easily distributed within the peer to peer network (Shin et al., 2016). With every passing year, cloud-based architecture is becoming an important aspect in the present domain of computing. Cloud computing providers can easily provide a range of services to firm which is inclusive of operating system and different software.
In week 4, I have learned about the data link layer that is the network interface. Datalink layer mainly communicates with devices which are available on the local network. In most of the cases, it is also defined as hop to hop communication. The communication between two devices on same network is only possible by the help of data link layer. It can be two machines which are connected end to end by making use of fiber-optic and satellite link (Yan, Zhang & Vasilakos, 2016). Data from different network media goes through the layers of network to application at the time of receiving host. LLC is known to be interface with the upper layer which helps IPv4, IPv6 and another kind of protocol to carry out transaction. Media access layer aims to send traffic to the network media. After that, it aims to receive traffic from different media. The mere focus of network interface card is all about establishing connection to the given network. Network interfaces are also built for printers, network sensors, and routers. The mere function network card is all about analyzing each and every packet that is available on the network. Media access control is very much focused on arbitrary access to the network. IP network is a protocol which is also known as address resolution protocol which is required for analyzing the MAC address (AbdAllah, Hassanein & Zulkernine, 2015). It merely specifics a particular machine on the network.
In week 5, I have come across the internet layer which discusses ARP. It merely helps in analyzing the MAC address of machine which located on local network along with specific IP address. If the ARP command is successful in nature then it will result in entry of ARP cache. New entries can be only added if and only if it results from local traffic (Chiang et al., 2017). The mere focus is all about delivering network from one host to another. Each of the connected devices on IP network will require IP address which is of two types that is IPv4 and IPv6. The main aim of operating system is all about holding IP address of machine. In case of manual administration, user will enter IP setting into the OS of machine. DHCP server focus on allocating the IP set to machine. At the booting of the machine, it sends a broadcasting request for IP setting. In general, an IP address mainly comprises of two that is network bits or node bits (Lara & Ramamurthy, 2016). Network bit common to all the host within the network while node bits highlight a particular host within the network. Subnet mask is merely applied to all the available host available on the network. There is generally two kinds of IP address that public and private. Most of the computer working on home network makes use of private IP address. It is merely achieved by making changes in the IP address for request. In general, router aims to communicate with each other for ensuring the fact they have idea with respect to network changes.
In this, I have gained some thorough concepts of transport layer that is TCP and UDP. Networking comes up with different level of addressing that is data link layer, network layer, and transport layer. It generally addresses local devices by using MAC address. The mere focus of network layer is all about addressing both local and remote host by analyzing IP address. The upper bits aim to address IP network while lower bit address the individual host (Sonchack et al., 2016). At the instance of discussing networking, data units are merely generated at various level of TCP/IP. The transport layer merely comprises of list of topics that is segmentation and summation. User application focus on selecting unused port when it is connected to network. It merely allows the server application to look for different kind of application and different sessions. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol which aims to provide some of the basic transport services for various network application. Stateless protocol is defined as the communication protocol which treats each of the requests like independent transaction. This kind of protocol comprises of independent pairs of both request and response. There is large number of benefits of using TCP/IP model like this a connection-based protocol (Chen et al., 2016). It ensures the fact that there is reliable and in-order delivery of data between sender and receiver. TCP aims to employ timers which help in detecting any lost transport layer parts.
In this week, I have come across the physical layer properties of networking and security. There is mainly two kinds of data that is digital and analog. Computer system aims to store information in digital format (Rawat et al., 2015). The biggest characteristics of digital information are either made up zero and binary ones. There is mainly two modes of transmitting media from one place to another that is either digital or analog. System can also be used for categorizing as per the data flow with in the devices. In simplex system, data only flows in one particular direction. In case of half-duplex, system allows data to flow in both the available direction. But it only permits the flow of data to one particular direction at same instance. Full duplex allows the concurrent bi-direction movement of data (Koulouris, Mont & Arnell, 2017). Multiplexing is generally used for dividing the given communication channel so that it can allow multiple conversion at same-time. Some of the well multiplex methods are TDM, FDM, and WDM. In the case of FDM, different channels aim to transmit on varying frequency. There is a wide range of transmitting media like coaxial cable, optical fiber, satellite microwave and infrared.
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