Motivation originated from Motive which means urge or desire to act, so motivation simply defined is an internal catalyst that initiates an individual to move towards a goal. Many classical philosophies have put forward theories on motivation like Maslow’s theory which represents needs in hierarchy triangle stating that basic needs have to be met first before a person aspires for higher order needs in hierarchy. Example, a person first meets basic physiological needs of food, water and warmth, after that focuses on safety need, then social need followed by esteem and self actualization needs. McGregor’ stated in his theory X and Y two views of human attributes which are linked to a person’s behaviour at work. The presumption of theory X is negative as employees having this set of view naturally dislike work, try to avoid responsibilities and display low ambition. Thus they must be controlled and closely supervised while theory Y presumptions are positive. Employees having this set of nature view work as natural as rest or play, look for responsibility and are self directed to goals (Elliot, Dweck and Yeager, 2017). Herzberg’s proposed motivator-hygiene theory which states job factors that either creates satisfaction or prevents dis-satisfaction. Hygiene factors like pay, company policies, fringe benefits, interpersonal relationship and working conditions are those job factors which are substantial for survival of motivation at work while motivator factors like growth, recognition, achievement etc are factors that are deep rooted to provide satisfaction and superior performance at work. McClelland’s theory identified motivating drivers of people like need for achievement, affiliation and power. Either of these drivers is dominant in all people and are dependent on culture and experiences, however these characteristics can be also learned.
Leadership is the process of social influence where a leader holds the capacity to motivate and inspire his followers for fulfilment of a common goal. There are various classical theories of leadership like trait theory which is one of the earliest presumptions which states that leaders are naturally born with certain definite characteristics that predict their leadership effectiveness and these are nurtured to make them great leaders. While behavioural theory stresses on actual behaviour and action of leaders and not on their attributes or traits as it believes that strong leadership is outcome of effective role behaviour. Fiedler theory states that most suitable form of leadership style depends on situation in which a leader works i.e. it depends on whether the circumstance is favourable, unfavourable or in an intermediate stage, so leadership varies as situations changes (Fairhurst and Connaughton, 2014). Situational theory of leadership states that as each task are different so no single leadership can be considered best and requires different set of styles to be adapted to goals that are to be achieved. Path-goal theory focuses on leader’s style or behaviour which matches employee’s needs and supports work environment to accomplish goals. It states that leaders need to support and guide employees to ensure that their goals are compatible to organisation’s objectives.
A team is cluster of individuals who function together to achieve a shared objective and people in these teams have defined association which is formed to take part in set of activities. While group is congregation of large number of people who combine willing fully to carry a focused action cohesively. Though they seem to be similar but have subtle differences as groups are formed for a cause while teams are formed to complete a common purpose or goal. There are various types of work teams like problem solving teams where workers combine to consult on productivity and work surroundings. Others types are self managed teams who work autonomously on their tasks and cross functional teams gather to accomplish a shared goal and consist of employees from different departments. While virtual teams function with remotely located employees to complete a common tasks with support of technology (Costa, Passos and Bakker, 2014). Groups are of two categories i.e. formal and informal based on structure of organisation. Formal groups are deliberately formed to meet needs or tasks which are related to organisational mission while informal groups are maintained out of social and psychological forces that exist within a workplace and are formed for social satisfaction. Both groups and teams allow employees to contribute beliefs, ideas and experiences.
Power is the intensity of influencing the behaviour of other person in a manner to control their desires and make them work as per own wishes. It prevails within fully reliant relationships as more the dependency greater is intensity of power. These are basically of two categories i.e. formal and personal. Formal power is obtained by an individual in congruence to their position within organisation and command related to it whereas personal power emerges from relationship one establishes and the respect that is earned from peers (Hauer, 2017). Power can be transposed into influential behaviour through lawfulness, judicious persuasiveness, constructive claims, discussion, correspondence, particular overture and affiliations. These power influences can be strengthened through techniques, bureaucracy and perception of people within an organisation as they all impact end user of power disposition. Also politics exist within organisations which are aimed to improve status or power and these have tremendous command over leverage within an organisation. Politics control behaviour and influences it either in legitimate or illegitimate way. Legitimate political behaviour means ordinary politics while illegitimate specifies intense political functioning that may infringe permissible order.
Within an organisation change emerges out of distinctiveness of technology, people and market orientations. These are of two categories i.e. planned and unplanned changes where planned change emerges from intense and persistent desires that drive focused actions and unplanned changes emerge out of reactions within settings. Refusal to change can be conquered through interaction, involvement and liability to employees. Stress is another aspect that exist in organisation which means emotional strain or tension created due to adverse conditions and crops ups from surroundings or individual causes. While in most cases stress is considered negative however it sometimes lead to higher productivity when managed under time and focused goals (Cullen, Edwards, Casper and Gue, 2014).
Costa, P.L., Passos, A.M. and Bakker, A.B., 2014. Team work engagement: A model of emergence. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(2), pp.414-436.
Cullen, K.L., Edwards, B.D., Casper, W.C. and Gue, K.R., 2014. Employees’ adaptability and perceptions of change-related uncertainty: Implications for perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(2), pp.269-280.
Elliot, A.J., Dweck, C.S. and Yeager, D.S. eds., 2017. Handbook of Competence and Motivation: Theory and Application. Guilford Publications.
Fairhurst, G.T. and Connaughton, S.L., 2014. Leadership: A communicative perspective. Leadership, 10(1), pp.7-35.
Hauer, T., 2017. Power and Politics. Philosophy, 7(6), pp.292-297.