Accounting Theory Assignment Help


The article written by Paul V Dunmore titled as “Half a Defence of Positive Accounting” has been selected for the purpose of drawing up this critique on the accounting theories that are extensively used in real life. The article outlines the various implications and impact that it has in most of the practical application of the Accounting Theory.

One of the objectives behind the completion of this assignment is to create and enunciate a critical analysis of the various arguments that have their roots in the article “Half a Defence of positive Accounting”. By understanding the critiques of the articles first and then posting a critical analysis of the various arguments, the various drawbacks associated with the theoretical and practical aspect of the subject can be understood (Dutta & Patatoukas, 2016). The entire assignment has been divided into several sections that includes the summary of the article which basically elaborates on all the major arguments that have been put forward in the article, followed the research question and the theoretical framework that would be used to answer the same and finally enumerating the various limitations suffered by the article itself followed by the conclusion (Lavia López & Hiebl, 2014).

Summary of the article

In the article that was chosen for this critique, the author speaks about the various aspects of the human behavior and the importance of Positive Accounting research. It has been established that Positive accounting theory which is based on the impact of Human behavior in account setting and the predictive behavior displayed by behavioral finance. The article has made several arguments in favor of the position that the behavior as well as the magnitude of the financial and capital markets cannot be anticipated or predicted (Lawrence, Leca & Zilber, 2013). The author has highlighted the significance of Behavioral Finance and evaluates on the hypothesis of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) based on various critiques that it puts forward. The author has also highlighted the significance of Positive Accounting Theory and has alluded the hypothesis to be utilized in like manner in contrast with EMH (Lukka & Pihlanto, 2014). The various findings that has been elucidated by the author in the article can be summarized as follows.

Positive Accounting Theory tries to make great and productive predictions in this present reality occasions and change its significance towards the bookkeeping exchanges. In bookkeeping, it is not vital to look at what ought to be done, but rather it is more imperative to recognize and express the principle reason or thought behind a particular occasion. In addition, bookkeeping hypothesis will probably anticipate the remarkable occasions that may related with an association (Miller & Power, 2013). The article has accentuated on the usage of PAT so as to foresee the maintainability of an association in a profoundly focused market.

The mix of the various arguments as put forward by Risthaus & Grimme suggests that it is vital for the finance managers and other fund holding authorities to have a solid and finish idea when it comes to the financial capability and health, and ought to determine their development on the premise of those forecasts. In any case, the discoveries made by Chen et al. (2014) are absolutely inverse. As indicated by them it is impractical for a speculator and the budgetary authorities to anticipate the market and the extraordinary occasions with the use of hypotheses, for example, Positive Accounting (Risthaus & Grimme, 2013).

Truth be told, more refined strategies, for example, Altman A-Score can't anticipate the effectiveness of an organization in great and harsh circumstances. Basic leadership is critical for a company, and it is similarly a similar which has been highlighted in the situation of this identified with Positive Accounting viewpoint. The more straightforward and clear the basic leadership perspective, the more viability could have been added to the organization, particularly over the long haul.

The article has additionally raised a thought that the position of foreseeing depends entirely on the usable accounting approaches and models which are utilizing by the organizations to deal with their prosperity in the market. It implies the more proficient and great the accounting systems and approaches, the more productive will be the predictive behavior for the organization. In the wake of having a basic and more intensive investigate this argument, it is found that the argument holds water afterall (Solomon & Marshal, 2015).

The various accounting standards, practices and policies as well as the strategies are very productive to the extent dealing with the prosperity of the organizations are concerned. A similar thought was uncovered by Sy & Tinker, 2014)in their review, as indicated by them in the current monetary emergency, the vast majority of the money related specialists have prescribed the organizations to receive International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), by thoroughly overlooking the possibility of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). IFRS have been outlined in a more moral way that depicts the significance of dealing with the money related part of an organization in a more sensible way (Sy & Tinker, 2014). The article has underlined over the usage of such an Accounting Treatment, through which the organization can include an incentive in their profitability and inside their goodwill in a phenomenal and effective way.

The article has accentuated over the component of survival of the organizations, when contrasted with expanding their gainfulness. As indicated by the principle essence of the article, while using PAT, firms need to expand their prospects for survival as opposed to augmenting the shareholder's value to end up plainly more one of a kind in the Universe and before the eyes of their shareholders.

The thought is not comfortable, the primary target of each association is to boost the potential for their shareholders, and give adequate chances to them that can build their enthusiasm for the profitability of the organization. In any case, PAT thoroughly backs by (Sy & Tinker, 2014), as per them the present period has been alluded as the time of industrialization and mechanical productivity in which associations need to make distinctive open doors for their shareholders through which they can expand their competiveness. Expanding the intensity has a solid association with the long haul survival of an organization.

The article has uncovered that associations are not perceived with the income and net pay they creates, yet they perceived with the agreements and ventures they attempts in a particular situation. The thought is wrong, as associations are intended to expand the monetary potential and reduction the operational costs in a capable way (Ward & James, 2015).

A similar thought was uncovered by Milne, as per them each and every association which is working has a mentality to build their money related potential, and boost their profit in a proficient way. The review likewise uncovered that taking a stab at the salary effectiveness doesn't imply that they attempt each and every venture into their thought.

There is a solid connection and association found among the productivity of an organization, and the activities or contracts they embrace. The proficient the endeavor extends, the higher will be the limit of an organization to broaden their monetary and key potential. In association with the last contention raised identified with contract and undertakings, PAT has the formidable ability to limit the cost of the agreements appropriately.

This is on the grounds that PAT empowers an association to put their nose just in those tasks or gets that can really expand their money related potential with the usage of least cost of operations. To put it plainly, one might say that PAT can be slightly biased in molding the behavior and workability of the organization towards the more financially-oriented achievements of the entity (Sy & Tinker, 2014).

Research questions

For any research aspect and study, the raising of various research questions is extremely important as it spells out the various elements in the study that it would be dealing with. With out a thought provoking set of research question associated with any kind of research, the objective of the research remains incomplete. Hence in the same line of argument the following research questions have been framed that would be answered via the course of the study to be undertaken:

·         How PAT can be valuable for reinforcing the money related structure of the associations?

·         How PAT can be valuable for reinforcing the vital structure of the associations?

·         In what way PAT can contribute towards the companies and organization to improve their sustainability in the current business milieu?

·         The reason behind the expanding and popularity of PAT for the various organizations in the business and accounting domains.

·         What is the inter relation between the management of the various accounting policies framework and PAT?

These examination inquiries are extremely wide in nature, and the analyst has utilized an impeccable skill to answer the same thoroughly and totally.

Theoretical framework

As per the definition, the theoretical framework resembles a structure that can hold or support of a particular hypothesis with the end goal of study and sheer examination and analysis of the subject at hand. The theoretical framework of the study elucidates and evaluated the research problem statement in the light of the theoretical knowledge available at the disposal of the researcher. Each examination report that comprise of Quantitative Method and Hypothesis has the element of Theoretical Framework underlie with the same (Sy & Tinker, 2014).

The same is appropriate with this specific research think about also. The article has assessed the significance of PAT regarding fortifying the money related and vital structure of the organization, and how PAT can help the organizations to augment their manageability in a focused market.


The previously mentioned hypothetical system has been utilized as a part of the . It is not outlined similarly; notwithstanding, the examination of the PAT has been sorted out under a similar setting. The Impact of the PAT has been broke down on the monetary and key prosperity of the organization, alongside its maintainability consider.

The limited nature of the article in terms of the theoretical framework provided for the research is not very conductive (Lawrence, Leca & Zilber, 2013). Hence any research work to be done in this direction would require the researcher to inform the reader or the user of the research data about the various procedures and techniques that have been used in it in order to enable them to use the results effectively.

The Significance and Limitation of the Article

This specific piece of the task is essential from the analysis perspective of the research and study done in this regard. The research which has been directed towards one of the most vital ideas identified with Accounting Management, hence, its significance is high. The level of importance associated with this research is huge and can be attributed to the fact that it seeks to satisfy the demands raised by a large part of the different readers and other users who would use the practical implication of the research work. For instance, the results of the research would and can be utilized by the organizations that are anticipating use PAT on their workability figure.

Furthermore, it is similarly useful for the analysts who are probably going to direct research on a similar point. The specialist has utilized Quantitative Research Method for the examination of the PAT, which is totally right, and has its reason since it is a bookkeeping based research. In any case, the examination outline that utilized by the exploration is not compelling. The examination configuration relating to the examination is "Exploratory" in which the scientist accepts that the exploration was not led some time recently, and it will be a perfect work of art in the current monetary situation (Lavia López & Hiebl, 2014).

Be that as it may, it is wrong, there are sure reviews have been directed in a similar area, for example, the studies undertaken by Ward & James. It is proposed to utilize Causal research outline rather for this examination, as the exploration configuration will help the exploration to analyze the circumstances and end results relationship among the ramifications of PAT and its effect over the components talked about in the theoretical framework (Ward & James, 2015).


The whole crux of the matter depends on the significance of PAT, and its relevance over the working of the various organizations. The exploration has incorporated some exceptionally fascinating focuses relating to PAT and its center significance. From this whole investigation, it is found that PAT will help the organizations to boost their supportability alongside augmenting the shareholder's value in an expert way. In addition, the examination has accentuated on undertaking the exploration contracts and tasks into thought that helps an organization to expand its potential likewise. To put it plainly, the primary focuses brought up in the relating to PAT are completely right, and the majority of the organizations over the globe are exploiting with a similar idea.


Dutta, S. and Patatoukas, P.N., 2016. Identifying Conditional Conservatism in Financial Accounting Data: Theory and Evidence. The Accounting Review.

Lavia López, O. and Hiebl, M.R., 2014. Management accounting in small and medium-sized enterprises: current knowledge and avenues for further research. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 27(1), pp.81-119.

Lawrence, T.B., Leca, B. and Zilber, T.B., 2013. Institutional work: Current research, new directions and overlooked issues. Organization Studies, 34(8), pp.1023-1033.

Lukka, K. and Pihlanto, P., 2014. The developer of Finnish accounting theory. Twentieth Century Accounting Thinkers (RLE Accounting), p.60.

Miller, P. and Power, M., 2013. Accounting, organizing, and economizing: Connecting accounting research and organization theory. Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), pp.557-605.

Risthaus, T. and Grimme, S., 2013. Benchmarking of London dispersion-accounting density functional theory methods on very large molecular complexes. Journal of chemical theory and computation, 9(3), pp.1580-1591.

Solomon, I.D. and Marshal, I., 2015. The Intermediation Functions of Finance Companies and Economic Growth: Issues, Theory and Empirical Evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Finance and Accounting, 3(3), pp.47-56.

Sy, A. and Tinker, T., 2014. Early European accounting theory: Sir William Petty’s contributions to accounting. International Journal of Critical Accounting, 6(3), pp.211-232.

Vesty, G. and Dellaportas, S., 2016. Special issue on accounting for a sustainable future. Managerial Auditing Journal, 31(2).

Ward, T.J. and James, K.L., 2015. Student Participation and Performance in a Graduate Accounting Theory Class. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 19(2), p.143.


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