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Introduction

There are different systems in an organization. The daily functioning of an organization comprises of various process. These processes are the sequence of activities that occur in various departmental systems. Generally, in an organization, there are purchases department, sales department, cash disbursement department and the payroll management department. Each of this department is more or less linked with each other. These departments work and cyclically perform the task and the cyclic working of these departments form the controlling process of an enterprise.

Similarly, the working of these departments has assessed in this report for the company Adam and company. Concerning this case study organization, the sequential functioning of each of these departments has been assessed. The description coincides with the flowchart of the purchase system; cash disburses system and finally the payroll system. The flowchart of all these systems forms the entire process of functioning of the company Adam and company. Along with these, there is certain internal control weakness in all of the systems. There are certain risks in the functioning process of the cash disbursement, payroll, and the purchases system. Such risks have also been identified.

The organizational structure of every organization determines the way of proceeding with the activities. Similarly, the company in the scenario has an organizational structure that defines how the notified systems conduct their activities. The accounting information system is very necessary for the users of accounting information to inspect the accounts of a company.  Businesses use different accounting information systems like Electronic data processing, manual systems and finally legacy systems (Hall, 2012). These systems are used in various departments in an organization. Similarly, in this topic, Adam and company are going to use these accounting information systems in its purchase, cash disbursement, and payroll department. Practically all of these departments of the company have worked properly.

Sequential flowchart of the purchase system

The purchase system of the mentioned company Adam and company work in a particular way. The purchases of the company to keep the inventories come from countries like China, Vietnam and finally Thailand.

 Adam and company have employed a particular clerk who is involved in going through the stock records.

Step 1:  As the purchasing clerk reaches in the morning, his analysis the stock records to find out the level of stock. When the stock is very low, the purchases manager immediately chooses a vendor. At first he analysis the list of considerable vendors and when he has seen a valid vendor, the purchasing clerk goes ahead with the digital purchase order by taking dual print outs one for his department and the other for the vendor (Azadeh et al. 2012, p.66).

Step 2: Immediately after the order bill is recognized by the vendor, the vendor with sent the goods and the goods reach the receiving section of the company. 

Step 3: After the goods come to the receiving section the staffs who are involved to take the delivery of the receivables checks the quality and recognizes such goods. By checking the details through the slip and the order sent from the vendor.

Step 4: After finding that the order details are all accurate the staff in receiving section makes two hard copy documents (Handfield and Nichols, 2002). In a hardcopy the details about the goods for the warehouse are present.

Step 5: After doing so the receiving staff maintains the overall receiving report concerning the goods and gives the other copy to the accounts department.

Step 6: As the accounts, payable section gets the copy of the goods received; he or she does the work of filing the order unless the suppliers provides the invoices. As a when he or she has received the invoices from the supplier the accounts payable section staff would take the receiving reports in the initial file, takes hard copies of it and finally, he updates all of the available documents.

Step 7: As the accounts, payable section staffs updates three of the documents, the digital payable ledger also get recognized by him along with the accounts payable and the stock accounts within the terminal are also recognized (Kim et al. 2010).

Step 8: After updating and recognizing each of the ledgers related to the receipt of the orders, the invoice, report, and the purchase statement are given to the cash disbursement section (Matthyssens and Faes, 1985, p.145).

This is the overall flow chart stating the system of operations of the purchase section of the given company.

Sequential flowchart of the cash disbursement system

The working of the cash disbursement system begins with the arrival of the invoices, purchase statement that is sent by the accounts payable section of the company. Upon receiving the cash disbursement system staff would:

Step 1: Immediately do the action of filing the documents until they reach the stipulated dates of payment.

Step 2: As and when the due dates for the payment of the goods arrive, the staff in the cash disbursement section of the company issues a cheque containing the number of goods sent from the supplier (Mintzberg, 1979).

Step 3: After preparation of the cheque is given to the treasurer.

Step 4: As the treasurer gets the cheque from the staff of the cash disbursement section, he or she gives his or her signature of approval and then post it for delivery to the vendor’s address.

Step 5: Immediately after the delivery of the concerned cheque the staff in the cash disbursement section would open his system and record the register, accounts payable subsidiary register along with the related control account for payables. At last, the clerk involved in receiving would record the invoices, copy of the purchases orders along with the reports of the cheque within his or her department (Robey, 1981, p.679).

This is how the entire cash disbursement system of the company works until the payment of the vendor for the received goods is filed by the receiving section clerk.

Sequential flowchart of the payroll system

The work of the payroll system begins immediately after the consigned cheque amounts for the receiving goods have been recognized by the receiving department clerk. The work of the payroll system of Adam and company begins with:

Step 1: As Adam and company staff members keep a written document of their working hours on time cards, the supervisors who are involved in managing the various departments of the company analyses the accuracies of the work timings of their staff members through these cards (Chang, 2016).

Step 2: After going through the accuracy the supervisors then provide the time cards for the respective employees to the payroll departments as and when the weekends.

Step 3: Within the payroll department there is a staff called payroll clerk who is involved in providing the data of the time cards, taking print of the hard copies of paycheques, taking out two different copies of the payroll records and finally positing these in each of the employee's profile. All of these activities are initiated by the payroll staff using the computer terminal that is linked with the overall payroll process of the Adam and company (Ackerman and Halverson, 1999, p.12).

Step 4: After doing the above the payroll staff initiates the filing activities of the time cards of all the employees within the payroll system and followed by these requisite pay checks for all employees of Adam and company are prepared and given to each of the supervisors. The paycheques are generally given to the supervisors for review of each of their team member’s paycheques.

Step 5: Upon reviewing the paycheques for accuracies they are given to the respective employees in various departments of the Adam and company. After all the employees get their paycheques the staff in payroll department prepares and provides a replica of the payroll records and gives it to the accounts payable section of the company (Nickols, 1998, p.14). Another copy of the payroll records is made which is attached with the time cards of staffs that remain within the department of the company.

Step 6: As the staff in the accounts payable department gets the payroll records he or she reviews the records and then makes a voucher of disbursement. After preparation of such documents, the staffs in the accounts payable department of the company gives the particular disbursement voucher along with the records of payroll to ledger preparation section.

Step 7: After giving the disbursement voucher to the general ledger section, the staff within the accounts department would issue the appropriate cheque comprising of the total payroll. Then he or she drops it in the respective bank account.

Step 8: In the final stage the staff makes a duplicate copy of the payment instrument in the accounts payable section of the Adam and company. As the staff in the general ledger section gets the particular voucher along with all the other records related to the payroll he or she posts it in the general ledger from computer loin of the payroll section (Akkiraju and Ivan, 2010, p.515). At last different the vouchers along with all the payroll records are recognized within the particular department.

This is all about the flow chart of the payroll system of the Adam and company.

Explaining the internal control weakness in each of the systems along with the possible risks

Despite proper functioning with the centralized accounting system, the analysis of flow charts for the available departmental systems in the Adam and company has identified certain internal control weakness in each of the departmental system. By analyzing the purchasing system the internal control weaknesses found are:

Internal control weakness: Undefined job roles- In the purchase system there are two clerks, one has been told as the receiving clerk and the other one has been notified as "clerk". So from the above analysis, it is found that the job roles of both the clerks are not segregated properly.

The risk associated: As the job roles are not defined, the employees of the purchasing department would not be familiar with their roles.

 Internal control weakness: Lack of control or authorization- It is necessary that all purchases have authorizations before they are done by purchasing clerk. In the scenario, there is no such authorization, upon seeing a low inventory the purchase order is not authorized by the clerk. Instead of making a purchase request to hierarchy, the clerk just looks for a vendor and orders items.

The risk associated: As the purchases orders are not authorized by the managers, the company may miss a better purchase option.

The internal control weakness of cash disbursement system is:

Internal control weakness: No accuracy checking- From the analysis, the main internal control weakness of the cash disbursement of the company is no proper checking is done (Cheng et al 2013, p.1). As the cash disbursement clerk gets the copies from the accounts payable, he or she does not go through the accuracy of the documents. Instead of going through the accuracy the staff in cash disbursement files them for preparation of cheque on the stipulated date.

The risk associated: As checking is not done, there exists a risk for occurrence of mistake in recording receipts or payments, making the company's financial statements incorrect.

Finally, the internal control weakness in the payroll system is:

Internal control weakness: Lack of security- Within the payroll system, there is no proper security. The information about employee salaries in paycheques is sent to the supervisors (Beneish et al. 2008, p.665). A company must keep the salaries of employees confidential. The paycheques should not be sent to supervisors. Instead, it should be directly uploaded in the employee profiles.

The risk associated: Confidential information may get revealed caused the smooth operations of the business.

Conclusion

Within an organization, various departments work in a proper sequential manner. Similarly, Adam and company has various departmental systems namely the purchase departmental system which functions in a sequential manner to regulate the entire purchase system, the cash disbursement departmental system functions in a sequential manner to ensure that all the cash payments along with receipts are handled properly and finally the payroll departmental system handles and recognizes the employee payments through paycheques and records them. Each of them works with their technical systems. However, there is some internal control weakness in each system that could give rise to a risk.

Reference list

Ackerman, M.S., and Halverson, C., 1999, January. Organizational memory: processes, boundary objects, and trajectories. In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. 1999. HICSS-32. Abstracts and CD-ROM of Full Papers (pp. 12-pp). IEEE.

Akkiraju, R. and Ivan, A., 2010, December. Discovering business process similarities: an empirical study with SAP best practice business processes. In International Conference on Service-Oriented Computing (pp. 515-526). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Azadeh, A., Darivandi, K., and Fathi, E., 2012. Diagnosing, simulating and improving a business process using cybernetic laws and the viable system model: the case of a purchasing process. Systems Research and Behavioral Science29(1), pp.66-86.

Beneish, M.D., Billings, M.B. and Hodder, L.D., 2008. Internal control weaknesses and information uncertainty. The accounting review83(3), pp.665-703.

Chang, J.F., 2016. Business process management systems: strategy and implementation. Auerbach Publications.

Cheng, M., Dhaliwal, D. and Zhang, Y., 2013. Does investment efficiency improve after the disclosure of material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting?. Journal of Accounting and Economics56(1), pp.1-18.

Hall, J.A., 2012. Accounting information systems. Cengage Learning.

Handfield, R.B., and Nichols, E.L., 2002. Supply chain redesign: transforming supply chains into integrated value systems. Ft Press.

Kim, K.D., Kim, Y.H., Kwak, B.K. and Lim, G.Y., HandySoft Global Corp, 2010. Systems and methods for automating a process of business decision making and workflow. U.S. Patent 7,653,566.

Matthiessen, P. and Faes, W., 1985. The OEM buying process for new components: purchasing and marketing implications. Industrial Marketing Management14(3), pp.145-157.

Mintzberg, H. (1979). The. structuring of. Organizations.

Nickols, F., 1998. The difficult process of identifying processes. Knowledge and process management5(1), pp.14-19.

Robey, D., 1981. Computer information systems and organization structure. Communications of the ACM24(10), pp.679-687.

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